There are hundreds of portfolio management firms operating in Canada. And, with every website looking the same (we’ve all seen the couple on the sailboat) and most of the information presented also sounding the same (they all invest in quality businesses with a strong management team) it’s often difficult to determine who does what and how one firm differs from the next one. Add to that that anyone can put together a great marketing presentation and it becomes even more difficult to separate the good from the bad from the ugly.
Institutional investors such as banks and pension funds employ manager research teams whose role is to identify best-in-class investment managers. Furthermore, most institutional investors rely on service providers who supply them with in-depth information about asset managers. As you can imagine, this process is expensive (in terms of salaries) and time consuming. However, that doesn’t mean that private investors can’t apply some of the same techniques in order to evaluate wealth managers. Canada’s wealthiest families do just that; working with investment consultants and multi-family offices, these investors apply similar techniques when it comes to evaluating, selecting and monitoring portfolio managers in charge of managing their wealth.
At Wealth Management Canada, our investment experts rely on 10+ years of experience conducting manager research on behalf of individual investors and institutional investors. In this article, we’ll be sharing a high-level overview of the process by highlighting the four main categories to review when evaluating the skill your current or future wealth manager.
Introducing the 4P’s of manager research
You may have heard the reference to the 4P’s of manager research. The 4P’s stand for People, Philosophy, Process, and Performance and these are the key areas to think about when evaluating a wealth manager. The 4P’s can be dissected further but for the purpose of this introduction we’ll focus on these high-level categories.
Investment staff and the overall organization structure are key ingredient which determine the success of a wealth manager. One of the first things to look at when selecting a wealth management firm is who are the individuals managing the portfolios. We need to determine the quality of the investment team – how confident are we that they are above-average investors and that their investment skill will result in the expected performance over the long term. It’s also important to understand the operating culture of the firm. This gives us an insight into the financial stability of the organization, overall team dynamic, succession planning, etc.
Discipline, confidence and conviction in one’s investment philosophy is critical when evaluating a wealth manager. We want to identify companies who believe in and follow their investment philosophy even in times of underperformance. Think of investment philosophy (or style) as the set of guiding principles that determine what type of securities the portfolio manager will focus on in their research and include in the portfolio. The investment philosophy must be clearly stated and convey to us what inefficiency in the market the wealth manager seeks to exploit. For example, if we’re evaluating a manager who focuses on investing in large-cap, value companies in Canada and they hold Enbridge, we want to know what the portfolio manager thinks that they know about Enbridge that the rest of the market is not considering which will result in a positive return for the portfolio.
The process is simply the execution of the wealth manager’s investment philosophy. When evaluating a firm’s process, we look at everything from how they conduct research, to how/why a stock makes it into the portfolio (buy decision), to how/why stock exits a portfolio (sell decision), to risk management techniques, to how the portfolio is constructed so the resulting portfolio is well diversified. What we want see a disciplined and repeatable process.
Performance is the firm’s report card. What is the end result of their investment philosophy and process? How well did they do compared to their peers or the broad market? There are two ways to look at performance:
- Annualized Returns: show the smoothed out, average return, the portfolio has delivered each year. For example, if you see a 3-year return of 4% that means that the portfolio has grown, on AVERAGE, 4% in each of the last three years. However, the actual returns in each of those years may not have (and most likely were not) exactly 4%.
- Calendar Year Returns: show the ACTUAL return for each year so the investor can see the pattern of returns over time which, when averaged out, produced the 4% return over 3 years.
It is important to look at both the annualized and the calendar year returns. The annualized returns help us evaluate the portfolio manager’s long-term performance, while the calendar returns give us the detailed story of how the manager arrived at those long-term numbers.
Manager research is similar to putting together a jigsaw puzzle, the 4P’s all need to fit together so we can see the full picture of how good a wealth manager really is. We take great pride in the manager research process at Wealth Management Canada and we are patient in our search for the best wealth management companies in Canada. The process is both an art and a science, involving both qualitative and quantitative research. And, while performance is ultimately what we’re after, we understand that performance is the result of the first 3P’s – the people, the investment philosophy, and the investment process. We’ve all seen the disclaimer “past performance is not an indicator of future outcomes”. There’s a very good reason for this: No one can guarantee future returns. However, we believe that identifying excellent investment teams, with good investment philosophies, and disciplined processes gives us the best probability of good future returns.